Cocaine Use During Pregnancy – Effects, Risks, And Treatment
There are significant risks associated with cocaine use, and those risk factors are magnified when pregnancy is a factor. During pregnancy, cocaine use is harmful not only to the mother, but the fetus as well.
Cocaine is a stimulant that directly affects the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal column. The way that cocaine affects a fully developed CNS has been studied, and long term side effects have been determined.
A woman abusing cocaine during pregnancy may or may not realize that the cocaine that they are taking is going to directly to their developing fetus. This can result in a number of risks, such as miscarriage, learning disabilities, or physical deformaties.
Regardless of the stage of pregnancy, first trimester, second trimester, or even the third trimester, cocaine use can result in numerous side effects, many of them long-term or permanent.
Is It Harmful To Use Cocaine During Pregnancy?
Using cocaine during pregnancy is extremely harmful to women and fetuses. Due to the significant risk factors associated with cocaine use and pregnancy, it is strongly discouraged.
A pregnant woman using cocaine places herself at risk for premature birth, and several other complications that may arise due to lack of appropriate medical care during her pregnancy.
In addition to premature birth, once the baby is born, there are risks associated with learning disabilities, language development, behavioral issues, and heart defects.
Using cocaine during pregnancy is dangerous and can result in a number of unwanted long-term health problems.
Effects Of Cocaine On Pregnant Women
Abusing cocaine while pregnant can result in cardiovascular, respiratory and psychiatric problems. Some of the more specific health risks connected to cocaine use and pregnancy include:
- premature birth
- miscarriage (especially if cocaine abuse occurs in the first trimester)
- high blood pressure
- cardiac arrhythmia or tachycardia
Cocaine use during pregnancy has been linked to poor prenatal care, preterm birth, and multiple pregnancies over time.
Delivery complications often occur with women who abuse cocaine during pregnancy. Regular cocaine use during pregnancy can result in placental abruption, the detachment of the placenta from the uterine wall.
Stillbirths occur 2.2 times more often in women who abuse cocaine.
Cocaine And Effects On Pregnancy
There are specific problems that can occur during pregnancy when the woman uses cocaine. Cocaine use can result in any of the following:
- placental infarction (blood flow to the placenta is interrupted)
- placental abruption
- fetal growth impaired
- ectopic pregnancy
- premature rupturing of membranes
Cocaine Effects On Fetus
Cocaine is a stimulant of the CNS, which plays a leading role in fetal development. Introducing drugs to the CNS system results in a significant number of health risks to both mother and fetus. Some of these risks include:
- spontaneous abortion
- meconium being passed into amniotic fluid and into the lungs of the fetus
- Microcephaly – abnormally small head
- structural and congenital abnormalities of gastrointestinal and renal systems
- internal organ systems being stunted
- neurodevelopmental delays
- fetal death
Cocaine use during pregnancy decreases blood flow within the uterus and decreased oxygen levels to the fetus. Fetal heart rate and blood pressure are higher than normal with women who abuse cocaine while pregnant.
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Effects Of Cocaine Use During Pregnancy On Children
While some of the physical effects can be recognized in utero, many of the side effects are only noticeable after birth.
Some of the effects of cocaine in utero have the following long-term consequences:
- cleft palate
- low birth weight
- limb defects
- congenital heart disease
- disruption of nervous system function
- learning disabilities
- behavioral problems
- impaired memory
- language development problems
Infants of women who used cocaine while pregnant are at a higher risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
The long term side effects for the children of women who used cocaine while pregnant are permanent and avoidable.
Cocaine Abuse And Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS)
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a term used to describe the symptoms linked to an infant who is born addicted to a drug the mother has been using during pregnancy. Infants born addicted to cocaine will experience withdrawal symptoms shortly after birth.
A baby born addicted to cocaine is likely to have difficulty sleeping and eating, be extremely irritable, and experience tremors, uncontrollable crying and muscle spasms.
Babies born addicted to crack cocaine or cocaine have been called cocaine baby or crack baby.
Breastfeeding And Cocaine Abuse
Cocaine has been found in the breast milk of mothers using cocaine. Any cocaine that a breastfeeding mother ingests can end up in their infant. Cocaine in any amount is extremely dangerous to a baby.
Breast milk continues to test positive for cocaine long after it has been expelled in urine. This is an indication that breast milk must be expelled and not used as nutrients to an infant.
Cocaine intoxication in infants can lead to seizures, racing heart, irritability, becoming inconsolable, and hyperventilation.
Treating Cocaine Addiction In Pregnant Women
Women addicted to drugs, like cocaine, are a unique demographic. Often, facilities have available spaces for pregnant women who are in need of substance abuse treatment.
Finding those facilities can feel overwhelming. Allow our professional staff to find a substance abuse program that can address your unique situation and help you make the best decision for you and your loved one.Article Sources
Drug and Alcohol Dependence - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3595593/
Global Library of Women’s Medicine - https://www.glowm.com/section_view/heading/Substance%20Abuse%20in%20Pregnancy/item/115#852
March of Dimes - https://www.marchofdimes.org/pregnancy/cocaine.aspx
National Institute on Drug Abuse - https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/cocaine/what-are-effects-maternal-cocaine-use
Therapeutic Advances Cardiovascular Diseases - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2710813/